clientServerConfigs

GemStone® GemFire Enterprise®

Client/Server Caching Configuration Example


The clientServerConfigs example uses the cacheRunner example to demonstrate the common recommended cache server and client configurations for client/server caching. The example configurations are located under the GemFire installation in examples/dist/clientServerConfigs. For information on client/server caching, see the GemFire Enterprise Developer's Guide and the online Java API documentation.

    In client/server caching, it is vital that the server and client tiers access different sets of data. If the servers and clients access the same distributed region in the same distributed system, the client/server caching model will fail. The servers should be in one distributed system accessing one distributed region. The clients should either all be in a second distributed system or they should be run as standalone applications.

Cache Configuration

The examples/dist/clientServerConfigs directory contains the XML cache configuration files for the cache server and client. There are two cache server configuration files. The first is server_notify_all.xml, which configures the server for the notify-all client entry update behavior. The second is server_notify_by_subscription.xml, which configures the server for notify-by-subscription behavior. There is one client file, client.xml. In these files:

    You may need to change the cache server communication port to avoid conflicting with processes already running on your system. If you do, just make sure to change to the same setting for cache-server port in both of the server_notify*.xml files.

    You may also need to change the locator communication port to avoid conflicting with processes already running on your system. If you do, just make sure to change 4111 to your new port number in the following files: server/gemfire.properties, and client.xml.


Distributed System Configuration

The clientServerConfigs directory also contains subdirectories with gemfire.properties files in them. These provide the distributed system configurations for the various client/server caching models. They specify the server and client mcast-port settings that define the distributed systems the VMs belong to. For the standalone client, they specify that the VM does not belong to any distributed system.
    You may need to change the mcast-port settings to avoid conflicting with ports that are already in use on your system. If you do, make sure the setting in client_separate_dist_sys/gemfire.properties is still different from the setting in server/gemfire.properties. Do not change any of the settings in client_standalone/gemfire.properties.

Environment Setup

You will need at least two terminal sessions: one to run a cache server VM and one to run a client VM. These examples show one server and one client running at a time, but you can increase the number of either. However many you run, you need a separate terminal session for each.

  1. Start two terminal sessions and go to the GemFire product directory in both of them. For each session, set the environment according to the instructions in examples/EnvSetup.html. If you intend to run the security authentication and authorization part of this example, be sure to include the environment settings specific to that part.
  2. Change directory in both sessions to examples/dist/clientServerConfigs. The rest of the example instructions are relative to this directory.

Starting a Locator and the Cache Server

Follow these steps to start a locator, start the cache server, and add some entries to the server's cache.

  1. In one of the sessions, change directory to the server directory.

  2. In the same session, start a locator and specify its port number as 41111:
  3.     gemfire start-locator -port=41111
    
  4. In the same session, run the server either with the server_notify_by_subscription.xml file or the server_notify_all.xml file:
        java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../server_notify_by_subscription.xml 

    -- or --

        java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../server_notify_all.xml

    This starts the cacheRunner program with the server's XML file and the current working directory's gemfire.properties file settings. The XML file defines a region named /root/cs_region and gives it a loader and a listener. The different configuration files determine how the server updates the client for server-side entry modifications. We'll see more about this at the end of the example.

    When the server starts you see this prompt:

        /root
  5. Enter the commands listed here in bold (most of the output is included in this listing). You define a value, value1, for the first entry, entry1, and you cause a loader invocation by getting an entry, entry2, that doesn't exist in the cache. The loader is programmed to return a value that is the string equivalent of the key. The listener reports on all entry creations, and specifies whether the value came from a load operation.

    /root> chrgn cs_region
    /root/cs_region> put entry1 value1
    CacheListener.afterCreate EntryEvent on region /root/cs_region
      [distributed, not expiration, local origin]
      [not load]
      Key: entry1
      Old value: null
      New value: value1

    /root/cs_region> get entry2
    CacheListener.afterCreate EntryEvent on region /root/cs_region
      [distributed, not expiration, local origin]
      [local load]
      Key: entry2
      Old value: null
      New value: entry2

         entry2 -> String: "entry2"
    /root/cs_region> ls
    Region Entries:
         entry1 -> byte[]: "value1"
         entry2 -> String: "entry2"

    Subregions:
    /root/cs_region>
Leave this running. The listener will report when there are modifications to the server's cs_region.

Running the Client

Follow these instructions for either of the client subdirectories to see the client/server cache working.

  1. In the other open session, choose the client directory whose configuration you wish to try. Change to either the client_standalone or the client_separate_dist_sys directory and run the following:
  2.     java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../client.xml
    
  3. Once the client is started, enter the commands below. You can skip the registerInterest step if you are running the server with the server_notify_all.xml file.
        /root> chrgn cs_region
        /root/cs_region> registerInterest entry1
        Interest registered in entry1 
        /root/cs_region> get entry1
             entry1 -> byte[]: "value1"
        /root/cs_region> get entry2
             entry2 -> String: "entry2"
        /root/cs_region> des entry2     
        /root/cs_region> get entry3
             entry3 -> String: "entry3"
        /root/cs_region> put entry1 valueFromClient
        /root/cs_region>

    As you run the commands, note the output in the server VM. When you ask for an entry that exists on the server, like entry1, it is passed directly from the server cache. When you ask for an entry that the server does not have, like entry3, it invokes its loader, updates the server cache, and returns the result. When you put an entry on the client side, the new value is passed up to the server.

  4. Run ls on both the server and client to verify the cache contents. Both sides should report the same thing:
        /root/cs_region> ls
        Region Entries: 
        entry1 -> byte[]: "valueFromClient"
        entry3 -> String: "entry3"

    With notify-by-subscription, the server automatically sends entry update notification, with values, for the entries the client has registered interest in. For entries that are not registered, the client can get values explicitly, but receives no updates for server-side update operations. With notify-all, the server automatically sends entry update notifications to the client as invalidations for all entries, with no values passed. Then, if the client needs the value, the get operation retrieves it from the server.

  5. Update entry1 and entry2 in the server session.
    /root/cs_region> put entry1 serverValue1
        ...
    /root/cs_region> put entry2 serverValue2
        ...

Final Client Cache for Notify-By-Subscription

For notify-by-subscription, the client side entry1 has the new server value. This is because the client registered interest in entry1 at the beginning of this session. The other entry, entry3, is not changed, so at this point it does not match the server cache. Since the client did not register interest in entry3, the server does not propagate any information on the server-side modification.

To see the results, run ls on the client side.

    /root/cs_region> ls
    entry1 -> byte[]: "serverValue1"
    entry3 -> String: "entry3"

Final Client Cache for Notify-All

For notify-all, entry1 is invalidated on the client.

To see this, run ls on the client side:

    /root/cs_region> ls
    entry1 -> No value in cache.
    entry3 -> String: "entry3"

Stopping the Server and Client

You need to stop the running server and client sessions so you can configure them for the following authentication/authorization example. Follow these instructions:

  1. Enter quit in the server session, but leave the session open.
  2. Enter quit in the client session and leave the session open.

Running the Server and Client with Authentication/Authorization Enabled

GemFire can be configured so that a client attempting to connect to a server must first submit credentials to the server for authentication. Credentials are typically submitted as a username and a password. Client operations on the server can be authorized or denied based on the client's credentials.

Authentication and authorization in this example is configured in the gemfire.properties files for the server and client. Descriptions of the configuration properties are listed below.

Do not enter these values. These are descriptions of security properties for the server.

# The sample implementation of LDAP server-based authentication.
security-client-authenticator=templates.security.LdapUserAuthenticator.create
	
# Point to a valid LDAP server. 
security-ldap-server=ldap
	
# The baseDN details (top level directory tree) of the LDAP server mentioned above.
security-ldap-basedn=ou=ldapTesting,dc=pune,dc=gemstone,dc=com


# The sample implementation of Xml-based authorization.
security-client-accessor=templates.security.XmlAuthorization.create
	
# The xml configuration file for XmlAuthorization accessor mentioned above.
# Modify the usernames in the provided XML to match those recognized by the
# LDAP server mentioned above.
security-authz-xml-uri=authz-ldap.xml	

Do not enter these values. These are descriptions of security properties for the client.

# The username/password-based sample implementation of AuthInitialize.
security-client-auth-init=templates.security.UserPasswordAuthInit.create


# The authentication credentials, such as a username and password.
# These should be valid combinations recognized by the LDAP server mentioned
# on the server side.
security-username=gemfire
security-password=gemfire

Running the Server with Authentication and Authorization

Follow these steps to configure the cache server for authentication and authorization, then start the server.

  1. Change directory to the server directory if the server session is not already in that directory.

  2. Make a copy of the gemfire.properties file so the file can be restored to its original, unedited state.

  3. Set the following security properties in the gemfire.properties file.
    	security-ldap-server=ldap
    	security-ldap-basedn=ou=ldapTesting,dc=pune,dc=gemstone,dc=com
    	security-client-authenticator=templates.security.LdapUserAuthenticator.create
    	security-client-accessor=templates.security.XmlAuthorization.create
    	security-authz-xml-uri=authz-ldap.xml
    

    Refer to the Sample GemFire Security Implementations section for other options for configuring and launching the server with cacheRunner.

  4. Start the server with the server_notify_by_subscription.xml file:
        java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../server_notify_by_subscription.xml
        

    This starts the cacheRunner program with the server's XML file and the current working directory's gemfire.properties file settings. The xml file defines a region named /root/cs_region and gives it a loader and a listener.

    Once the server has started, this prompt appears:

        /root>
  5. Enter the commands listed here in bold (most of the output is included in this listing).
        /root> chrgn cs_region
        /root/cs_region> put entry1 value1
        CacheListener.afterCreate EntryEvent on region /root/cs_region
          [distributed, not expiration, local origin]
          [not load]
          Key: entry1
          Old value: null
          New value: value1
    
        /root/cs_region> ls
        Region Entries:
             entry1 -> byte[]: "value1"
    
        Subregions:
        /root/cs_region
    Leave this running. The listener will report when there are modifications to the server's cs_region.

Running the Client with Authentication and Authorization

To see the client/server cache working with authentication and authorization, you will modify the configuration in the client_standalone subdirectory. Make a copy of the gemfire.properties file in that directory so the file can be restored to its original, unedited state.

With Valid Credentials:

  1. In the other open session, change directory to the client_standalone directory if it's not already in that directory.

  2. Set the following security properties in the client's gemfire.properties file (be sure to remove # from the security- properties):
        security-client-auth-init=templates.security.UserPasswordAuthInit.create
        security-username=gemfire3
        security-password=gemfire3
  3. Run the client with the following command:
    	java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../client.xml
    
  4. Once the client is started, enter the commands below.
    	/root> chrgn cs_region
    /root/cs_region> ls
    Region Entries: Subregions: /root/cs_region> get entry1 entry1 -> byte[]: "value1"
    /root/cs_region> ls Region Entries: entry1 -> byte[]: "value1" Subregions: /root/cs_region> put key2 value2
    The put operation results in this error message:

    com.gemstone.gemfire.cache.client.ServerOperationException: com.gemstone.gemfire
    .security.NotAuthorizedException: Not authorized to perform PUT operation on region
    [/root/cs_region]

    The error message reports that the put operation is not authorized. Note that authorization is granted for the get operation. Review the roles and privileges table in LDAP Authentication to see that the gemfire3 credentials authorize the client to perform reader operations, which includes get, but not writer operations, which includes put.

With Invalid Credentials:

  1. Enter quit in the client session to stop the running client.
  2. Change the security-username and security-password properties in gemfire.properties to start the client with invalid credentials:
    	security-username=invalidUsr
    	security-password=invalidUsr
  3. Start the client. An AuthenticationFailedException occurs:

    java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../client.xml

    Exception in thread "main" com.gemstone.gemfire.security.AuthenticationFailedException:
    LdapUserAuthenticator: Failure with provided username, password combination for user name: invalidUsr


With No Credentials
:

  1. Remove the security-client-auth-init, security-username and security-password properties from gemfire.properties to start the client without any credentials.
  2. Start the client. An AuthenticationRequiredException exception occurs.

java cacheRunner.CacheRunner ../client.xml

Exception in thread "main" com.gemstone.gemfire.security.AuthenticationRequiredException:
No security-* properties are provided

Stopping the Locator and Closing the Server and Client Sessions

  1. In the server session, enter quit to stop the running server.
  2. In the server session, stop the locator by entering:
  3. gemfire stop-locator -port=41111
  4. Enter exit to close the server session.
  5. In the client session, enter exit to close the session.


Sample GemFire Security Implementations

There are two aspects to GemFire security:

  1. Authentication: Handles the authentication of nodes in a peer-to-peer network, as well as clients that connect to the servers.
  2. Authorization : Evaluates the permission for GemFire operations by the clients.

Authentication can be either Dummy, LDAP server-based, or PKCS-based, whereas authorization is XML-based only. For different authentication schemes, the corresponding authorization XML configuration file should be provided to the Sample Authorization module.

Dummy Authentication

This authentication scheme is based on a simple username and password. The server side authenticator is in package templates.security.DummyAuthenticator.create. The client side initializer for it is in templates.security.UserPasswordAuthInit.create.

Mapping between Authentication credentials and Authorization roles & privileges
Authentication User Name Authorization Roles Permission to the Roles
root, admin, administrator reader, writer, cacheOps
reader     : get, register_interest, unregister_interest, key_set, contains_key
writer      : put, destroy, region_clear
cacheOps: query, execute_cq, stop_cq, close_cq, region_create, region_destroy
reader0, reader1, reader2 reader
reader     : get, register_interest, unregister_interest, key_set, contains_key
writer0, writer1, writer2 writer
writer      : put, destroy, region_clear
reader3, reader4 queryRegions
queryRegions: query, execute_cq, stop_cq, close_cq


LDAP Authentication

This scheme is based on the usernames and password configured in a LDAP server. Refer to the Security chapter in the GemFire Enterprise System Administrator's Guide for more details. The server side authenticator is in package templates.security.LdapUserAuthenticator.create The client side initializer for it is in templates.security.UserPasswordAuthInit.create.

Mapping between Authentication credentials and Authorization roles & privileges
Authentication User Name Authorization Roles Permission to the Roles
gemfire1, gemfire2 reader, writer, cacheOps
reader     : get, register_interest, unregister_interest, key_set, contains_key
writer      : put, destroy, region_clear
cacheOps: query, execute_cq, stop_cq, close_cq, region_create, region_destroy
gemfire3, gemfire4, gemfire5 reader
reader     : get, register_interest, unregister_interest, key_set, contains_key
gemfire6, gemfire7, gemfire8 writer
writer      : put, destroy, region_clear
gemfire9, gemfire10 queryRegions
queryRegions: query, execute_cq, stop_cq, close_cq


PKCS Authentication

This scheme is based on public/private key-based encryption and decryption. Refer to the Security chapter in the GemFire Enterprise System Administrator's Guide for keystore configurations. The server-side authenticator is in package templates.security.PKCSAuthenticator.create. The client-side initializer is in templates.security.PKCSAuthInit.create.

PKCS configuration details:

  1. Create a keystore for aliases from gemfire1 to gemfire10, as described in the Security chapter for the GemFire Enterprise System Administrator's Guide.

  2. Provide the following properties in gemfire.properties for client-side configuration.
    Note: All of these properties are user-provided information to keytool-like utilities during public/private key generation and self-signing.

    % security-keystorepath=<absolute filepath to keystore where keys are generated>
    % security-alias=<alias name given while generating Public & Private key pair for the Client>
    % security-keystorepass=<password entered while generating Private key while Self-signing>

  3. Provide the following properties in gemfire.properties for server side configuration.
    Note: All of these properties are user-provided information to keytool-like utilities during TrustStore generation.

    % security-publickey-filepath=<absolute filepath to keystore where public keys are generated>
    % security-publickey-pass=<password entered while generating key to TrustStore>

Mapping between Authentication credentials and Authorization roles & privileges
Authentication KeyStore Aliases Authorization Roles Permission to the Roles
gemfire1, gemfire2 reader, writer, cacheOps
reader     : get, register_interest, unregister_interest, key_set, contains_key
writer      : put, destroy, region_clear
cacheOps: query, execute_cq, stop_cq, close_cq, region_create, region_destroy
gemfire3, gemfire4, gemfire5 reader
reader     : get, register_interest, unregister_interest, key_set, contains_key
gemfire6, gemfire7, gemfire8 writer
writer      : put, destroy, region_clear
gemfire9, gemfire10 queryRegions
queryRegions: query, execute_cq, stop_cq, close_cq


XML-Based Authorization

This authorization scheme is based on the prior mapping of authentication credentials to roles and privileges. Permissions in XML files are supplied corresponding to the authentication scheme. Refer to the Security chapter in the GemFire Enterprise System Administrator's Guide for more information. The server-side security-accessor is in package templates.security.XmlAuthorization.create, and security-authz-xml-uri should point to either authz-dummy.xml or authz-ldap.xml, depending on the security-authenticator provided.

Additional Example Scenarios

There are a number of scenarios you can explore with this basic setup. You might add other clients and see the effect on client peers when a client updates an entry. You could see how the behavior changes when subscriptions are disabled (in the client's XML configuration file, change the true value to false for the "subscription-enabled" attribute).